Whitelisting addresses this challenge by flipping the defense model from a default allow to a default deny. While blacklisting techniques use signatures to maintain a list of entities to block, whitelisting creates a list of a few trusted entities to allow while blocking anything not on the whitelist.
Organizations use whitelisting techniques to help give them a different advantage against malicious attackers.
In many cases, more security can mean less flexibility and a burden on users. Organizations are therefore continuously having to balance between complex defense-in-depth strategies while meeting user needs for flexibility and ease of use.